Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology has many subdisciplines unified by five so-called axioms of modern biology: Cells are the basic unit of life Genes are the basic unit of heredity New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition Living organisms consume and transform energy Subdisciplines of biology are defined by the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions among biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism; evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life; and ecology examines how organisms interact in their environment.
In biological classification, family is a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subfamily . a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is families (Latin familiae) Example: Walnuts and hickories belong to Juglandaceae, the walnut family.
Family (biology)Zoological nomenclaturePlant taxonomyScientific classificationFamilyBotanical nomenclature
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.
Evolution is any change across successive generations in the inherited characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins. Life on Earth originated and then evolved from a universal common ancestor approximately 3.7 billion years ago.
EvolutionEvolutionary biologyArticle Feedback 5 Additional ArticlesBiology theories
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).
Order (biology)Plant taxonomyScientific classificationBotanical nomenclatureZoological nomenclature
Enzyme substrate (biology)
In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). In the case of a single substrate, the substrate binds with the enzyme active site, and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate is transformed into one or more products, which are then released from the active site. The active site is now free to accept another substrate molecule.
Enzyme substrate (biology)BiomoleculesCatalysisEnzyme kinetics
In biology and specifically, genetics, the term hybrid has several meanings, all referring to the offspring of sexual reproduction.
Hybrid (biology)Biology terminologyBreedingPopulation geneticsEvolutionary biologyHybridisation (biology)Botanical nomenclature
Zoology /zoʊˈɒlədʒi/, occasionally spelt zoölogy, is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον (zōon, “animal”) + λόγος (logos, “knowledge”).
Botany, plant science(s), or plant biology (from Ancient Greek βοτάνη botane, "pasture, grass, or fodder" and that from βόσκειν boskein, "to feed or to graze"), a discipline of biology, is the science of plant life. Traditionally, the science included the study of fungi, algae, and viruses. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups.
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including most bacteria) or multicellular. Humans contain about 10 trillion (10) cells. Most plant and animal cells are between 1 and 100 µm and therefore are visible only under the microscope.
Cell (biology)Cell biology
In zoology, an egg is an organic vessel in which an embryo first begins to develop. In most birds, reptiles, insects, molluscs, fish, and monotremes, an egg is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum, which is expelled from the body and permitted to develop outside the body until the developing embryo can survive on its own. The term "egg" is used differently outside the animal kingdom, for an egg cell (sometimes called an ovum).
Egg (biology)OologyEggsAvicultureBird breedingReproductive system
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life.
BiochemistryBiochemistrySubjects taught in medical school
In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs. This is in contrast to physiology, which deals primarily with function.
Morphology (biology)Morphology (biology)Comparative anatomy
In biology, a type is one particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon.
Type (biology)Botanical nomenclatureBiologyTaxonomyZoological nomenclature
Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interactions are regulated.
Molecular biologyMolecular biology
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features".
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank between family and genus. It is sometimes subdivided into subtribes. Some examples include the tribes Caprini, Acalypheae, Hominini, Bombini, and Antidesmeae.
Tribe (biology)Plant taxonomyScientific classificationBotanical nomenclatureZoological nomenclature
Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. A tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. These are called tissues because of their identical functioning. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology.
Tissue (biology)Underwater diving physiologyTissues
In the field of biochemistry, a receptor is a molecule most often found on the surface of a cell, which receives chemical signals originating externally from the cell. Through binding to a receptor, these signals direct a cell to do something—for example to divide or die, or to allow certain molecules to enter or exit.
Receptor (biochemistry)Cell signalingReceptorsMembrane biologyCell biology
For the the film of the same name, see Chimpanzee (film) colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | ChimpanzeesTemporal range: 4–0 Ma PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K ↓ File:Schimpanse zoo-leipig.
ChimpanzeeMammals of AfricaApesChimpanzees
In biological classification, class is a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass . a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes) The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist.
Class (biology)Plant taxonomyScientific classificationBotanical nomenclatureBiology terminology
A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon, is a professional who treats disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a vet is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or registration are not able to use the title.
Veterinary physicianVeterinary professions
Gynoecium is most commonly used as a collective term for all carpels in a flower. A carpel is the ovule and seed producing reproductive organ in flowering plants. Carpels are derived from ovule-bearing leaves which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules. They did this by folding and fusing at their edges to form a chamber in which the ovules develop. In many flowers, several to many carpels are fused into a structure that resembles a single carpel.
GynoeciumPlant morphologyPlant sexualityReproductive system
In biological classification, rank is the level (the relative position) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, and class. Each rank subsumes under it a number of less general categories. The rank of species, and specification of the genus to which the species belongs is basic, which means that it may not be necessary to specify ranks other than these.
Taxonomic rankZoological nomenclaturePlant taxonomyScientific classificationBiology terminologyPlant taxa by rankBotanical nomenclature
Stress is a term that is commonly used today but has become increasingly difficult to define. It shares, to some extent, common meanings in both the biological and psychological sciences. Stress typically describes a negative concept that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being, but it is unclear what exactly defines stress and whether or not stress is a cause, an effect, or the process connecting the two.
Stress (biology)StressSympathetic nervous systemEndocrine system
Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues.
Stem cellCloningStem cellsDevelopmental biologyBiotechnologyCell biology
Native plant is a term to describe plants endemic or naturalized to a given area in geologic time. This includes plants that have developed, occur naturally, or existed for many years in an area. In North America a plant is often deemed native if it was present before colonization. Some native plants have adapted to a very limited, unusual environments or very harsh climates or exceptional soil conditions.
Native plantPlantsPlants by habitatNative plant societies
Biological classification, or scientific classification in biology, is a method to group and categorize organisms into groups such as genus or species. These groups are known as taxa . Biological classification is part of scientific taxonomy. Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent.
Biological classificationScientific classificationBiologyClassification systems
Antennae in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. More recently, the term has also been applied to cilium structures present in most cell types of eukaryotes. In arthropods, antennae are connected to the front-most segments. In crustaceans, they are biramous and present on the first two segments of the head, with the smaller pair known as antennules.
Antenna (biology)Arthropod anatomyCell biology
Crows form the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-size jackdaws to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents and several offshore and oceanic islands (except for a few, which included Hawaii, which had the Hawaiian crow that went extinct in the wild in 2002).
Bioinformatics Listen/ˌbaɪ. oʊˌɪnfərˈmætɪks/ is the application of computer science and information technology to the field of biology and medicine. Bioinformatics deals with algorithms, databases and information systems, web technologies, artificial intelligence and soft computing, information and computation theory, software engineering, data mining, image processing, modeling and simulation, signal processing, discrete mathematics, control and system theory, circuit theory, and statistics.
BioinformaticsMathematical and theoretical biologyFormal sciencesBioinformaticsBiostatisticsComputational biologyBioengineering
This article is about the taxonomic rank in botany. For other uses, see Variety (disambiguation). In botanical nomenclature, variety is a taxonomic rank below that of species: as such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name.
Variety (botany)Plant taxonomyBotanical nomenclature
T cells or T lymphocytes belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells), by the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus. There are several subsets of T cells, each with a distinct function.
T cellHuman cellsT cells
Convergent evolution describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages. The wing is a classic example of convergent evolution in action. Flying insects, birds, and bats have all evolved the capacity of flight independently. They have "converged" on this useful trait. Although their last common ancestor did not have wings, both birds and bats do, and are capable of powered flight.
Convergent evolutionEvolutionary biology
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant. The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes, the nodes hold buds which grow into one or more leaves, inflorescence (flowers), conifer cones, roots, other stems etc. The internodes distance one node from another. The term shoots is often confused with stems; shoots generally refer to new fresh plant growth and does include stems but also to other structures like leaves or flowers.
Plant stemPlant morphologyPlant anatomy
Spawn refers to the eggs and sperm released or deposited, usually into water, by aquatic animals. As a verb, spawn refers to the process of releasing the eggs and sperm, also called spawning. Most aquatic animals, apart from aquatic mammals, reproduce through a process of spawning. Spawn consists of the reproductive cells of aquatic animals, some of which will become fertilized and produce offspring.
Spawn (biology)Articles containing video clipsReproductionIchthyology
Polymorphism in biology occurs when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species — in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph. In order to be classified as such, morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time and belong to a panmictic population (one with random mating).
In biology, a phylum is a taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class. "Phylum" is equivalent to the botanical term division. The kingdom Animalia contains approximately 35 phyla; the kingdom Plantae contains 12 divisions. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades, like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta.
PhylumPlant taxonomyGreek loanwordsScientific classificationPhylaBotanical nomenclature
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an individual, organism, or new genetic character, arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is a base-pair sequence change within the DNA of a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the wild type. The natural occurrence of genetic mutations is integral to the process of evolution.
MutantClassical geneticsEvolutionary biology
Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors). This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics.
Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that have given rise to the diversity of life on Earth. Someone who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist; evolutionary biologists study the descent of species and the origin of new species. To philosopher Kim Sterelny, "the development of evolutionary biology since 1858 is one of the great intellectual achievements of science".
Evolutionary biologyPhilosophy of biologyEvolutionary biology
Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy) is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. In animals, the process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo. Depending on the animal species, the process can occur within the body of the female in internal fertilisation, or outside (external fertilisation). The entire process of development of new individuals is called reproduction.
Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. This article describes morphological aspects of sexual reproduction of plants. Among all living organisms, flowers, which are the reproductive units of angiosperms, are the most varied physically and show the greatest diversity in methods of reproduction of all biological systems.
Plant sexualityPlant morphologyPlant sexuality
X-ray crystallography is a method of determining the arrangement of atoms within a crystal, in which a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal and causes the beam of light to spread into many specific directions. From the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal.
X-ray crystallographyX-raysSynchrotron-related techniquesX-ray crystallographyProtein structureProtein methodsCrystallographyDiffraction
Marine biology is the scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.
Marine biologyBiological oceanographyFisheriesMarine biology
In biology, an organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. Usually there is a "main" tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ. For example, the main tissue in the heart is the myocardium, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood and connective tissues. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems.
Organ (anatomy)OrgansOrgan systems
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Cell biologyCell biology
In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, or a mutual or commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter. In botany, a host plant is one that supplies food resources and substrate for certain insects or other fauna. Examples of such interactions include a cell being host to a virus, a legume plant hosting helpful nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and animals as hosts to parasitic worms, e.g. nematodes.
Host (biology)Biological interactions
In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper side of animals that typically run, fly, or swim in a horizontal position, and the back side of animals (like humans) that walk upright. In vertebrates the dorsum contains the backbone. The term dorsal refers to anatomical structures that are either situated toward or grow off that side of an animal. The opposite side of the animal is described with the terms ventrum and ventral.
Dorsum (anatomy)Animal anatomy
In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by plant crowns. For forests, canopy also refers to the upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms. Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a dense canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants.
Canopy (biology)Habitat (ecology) terminologyRainforestsBiology terminologyForest ecology
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SystematicsScientific classificationEvolutionary biology
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